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How These NFL Teams got their Respective Names


The Arizona Cardinals (originally the Chicago Cardinals) were established in 1898, making them oldest team still in the NFL. When the teams 1st owner bought them used uniforms from the University of Chicago in 1901 they were faded maroon. They called it Cardinal Red.


Like many teams, when the Falcons were founded in 1966 they held a naming contest. More than 500 different names were sent in including the Atlanta Confederates, and the Atlanta Peaches. The name Falcons was entered by several people, but the winning entry was awarded to Julia Elliot for describing the Falcon as “proud and dignified and it never drops its prey”.

She won 3 years worth of season tickets and an autographed football for her team spirit.


When the Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore in 1996, Owner Art Modell attempted to purchase back the name “Colts”. The name of the Baltimore football team that moved to Indianapolis. He was unsuccessful and a newspaper ran a poll to select the new name. The Ravens was a reference to a poem by Edger Allen Poe, one of Baltimore’s most famous residents.


The Buffalo Bills was the name of a defunct AAFC team in Buffalo when the NEW Buffalo team was being established. They took on the name as homage to the old team. Acknowledging the city’s roots in football.


Mark Richardson, Panthers President up until 2009, named the team when it was created in 1995. He said that the Panther was “powerful, sleek and strong”. He also decided on the teams colors to the disapproval of NFL officials who thought the name Panther combined with black in the color scheme could become associated with gang violence.


The Decatur Staleys were named in honor of their sponsor, the Staley Starch Company. The team was often referred to by fans as the Bears as a nod to their cross town city mate the cubs. When the team was purchased away from the Staley Starch Company they made the name official.


Though a fan poll asked for the team to be named the Buckeyes, The Bengals first owner, GM, and head coach (who were all the same man) Paul Brown decided to name the team the Bengals in honor of an earlier team that played in the city (much like how the Bills did earlier). He was also the former coach of the Ohio State Buckeyes football team, so that may have contributed to the teams avoidance of the name as well.


There is some disagreement as to the origin of the name “Brown” but the popular story goes that the owner of the team told coach Paul Brown (hey, that guy again) to name the team. Brown held a newspaper poll which selected the name “Browns” after the popular coach, which he did not like. He then named the team the Panthers, but 2 months later owner Mickey McBride overruled him and told the Coach the team would be the Browns.

It is myth as to whether the name Brown refers to the coach or boxer Joes Louis (Nicknamed the Brown Bomber).


The Browns moved from Cleveland to Baltimore in 1996 and changed their name to the Ravens. Cleveland, being the big football city that it is was instantly awarded an expansion franchise for 1999, which they named the Browns. Interestingly enough both teams claim the history of Browns as their own team history.


The original team name for the boys in Dallas was the Steers. Team GM Texas E. Schramm thought that this left them open to mockery (a steer is a castrated bull) so they changed the team to the Rangers. There was another Rangers team in the Dallas area though (minor league baseball), and it wasn’t long before there was concern of confusion so they finally settled on the name Cowboys.


Denver held an essay naming contest in 1960 to name its charter AFL team. 162 fans wrote in. The winning entry went to Ward M. Vining whose essay consisted of a mere 25 words.


The Detroit Lions were the Portsmouth Spartans before being moved to Detroit and renamed in 1934. Owner George A. Richards said that “The lion is the monarch of the jungle, and we hope to be the monarch of the league.”

The Lions have 4 NFL Championships, but have never played in a super bowl.


The Packers first sponsor, the Indian Packing Company was the teams real namesake. Later sponsored by the Acme Packing Company the team name remained, and when ACME went out of business the Packers were able to sustain operation by selling public stock in the team.


The Houston Texans are strangely enough the 6th professional football team to be known as the Texans. The team was so named by owner Bob McNair instead of other suggested named, the Appollos and the Stallions.


The Baltimore Colts were named for the areas history of horse breeding back when they played in the All-America Football Conference. They relocated to Indianapolis in 1984 amid a huge controversy, and kept the name Colts.


The Jaguar name was selected through a fan contest a full 2 years before a team was actually awarded to the city by the NFL. It would be another 2 years after that until they would play. Jaguars are not native to Florida, but the oldest living Jaguar at the time was hosted by the Jacksonville Zoo.


The Chiefs were originally the Dallas Texans, but when they moved to Kansas City a name change seemed prudent. Some of the rejected names included the Mules, the Stars and the Royals (which would eventually become the city’s Major League Baseball Franchise). The name Chiefs was selected to honor the city’s mayor, H. Roe Bartle, who was nicknamed “The Chief”.

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20 Brilliant Bookshelves for Modern Bookworms

As the famous saying goes, I like big books and I cannot lie . Even though we may take in most of our reading via an iPad or Kindle these days, we are still bookworms at heart. The warmth and character of a well-worn or brand new book is hard to beat. But those books of yours need a good home. Here are 20 unusual bookshelves that just might fit the bill.

1. Custom Made Wooden Book Rack ($210): How awesome is this? Best of all, the hanging part doubles as a bookmark.

2. Conceal Shelf ($35): We love the quirky curve of this Umbra shelf.

3. Red Balance Bookshelf ($175): Loving the industrial red look – we’re definitely bookmarking this for Brit HQ.

4. Library Tree Branch (contact to order): A tree of branches grows in your home? 🙂

5. Simple Shelf ($20): Do the robots come with?

6. Floating Book Shelf ($13): This classic invisible shelf is great for any space. We love the idea of using a bunch to create a wall installation of books.

7. Deadgood Bookshelf ($80): Hot pink always wins in our book.

8. T.Shelf ($840): That price is not a typo – pretty hefty for a bookshelf but we really dig the design.

9. Equation (concept): Such a cute take on the most aesthetically pleasing parts of math.

10. Flatliner Zig Zag ($75): This rustic zig zag would be a great bedside companion if you’re trying to maximize a small space.

11. Batman Bookshelf ($170): That’s right. Batman in bookshelf form. #win

12. Chuck Flexible Bookshelf (contact to order): This beautiful piece can be pushed and pulled to accommodate any size books (or objects) you like.

13. Nero Shelf ($250): It’s like an ink blot meets a drip-painting, and somehow it looks modern.

14. Typographic Bookshelf ($980): You know we’ve got a weakness for typographic decor.

15. Branch Shelf ($232): For a littler tree, we love this option.

16. Magneto Shelves (concept): If you’ve got a metal wall or a large fridge, these are magnetic shelves. Awesome.

17. Check Bookshelf (concept): We can’t wait for this check to hit the market.

18. United States Bookshelf (concept): Perhaps you could organize books by author’s hometown? Or by where the story takes place?

19. Spiral Bookshelf ($450): Another pricey one, this playful spiral is perfect for a kid’s room.

20. Floating Triangle ($75): And last, a floating triangle. We might have to DIY this one in the near future – stay tuned!

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Nigeria fashion: What are wedding dress styles for 2016?

Do you plan to get married this fall and you have no idea what style of a wedding dress you should choose to impress your loved one and all the guest? Then take a look at the latest trends for Nigerian wedding dresses in 2016. Learn the list of our tips and tricks to find out what for a dress you have to wear to be unforgettable.


There are different styles actual now starting from huge 3D flowers or on dresses and ending with completely transparent silhouettes. There are not so many new wedding clothes designs and fabrics in this year, more so most of fashion designers featured old and well known silhouettes. So let’s start with the most trendy outfits.


Lace forever.

Do you love lace? Every girl does. It is the most favorite wedding fabric loved by all the women worldwide. And this holds true for Naija as well. Latest trends show us that lace is actual for a marriage dress style in 2016. Choose the eternal lace style and you can be sure you will always look elegant and mysteriously. Lace look very feminine and emphasize girl’s tenderness. This tissue is so attractive that you can meet in every wedding party. However, its biggest advantage is it looks always chick and perfect on different women, doesn’t matter if it was for a bride-to-be or a bridesmaid. Lace can be embroidered with floral or geometric ornaments, and made in various colors. So you will surely find some fabulous lace dress for yourself.


Naked truth.

Sheer silhouettes are still in trends. It is no wonder why. The transparent dress gives you this chick of being both dressed and naked. It looks enigmatic and appealing. The girl in a sheer dress will get a lot of attention because she looks like a secret a man has to guess. Designers like this illusion of making visible and at the same time invisible dresses. Brides in such wedding outfits look very sensual and gentle.


Layered beauty.

Layers are still trendy now. You can choose a column silhouette or a big fluffy skirt. Layers will make your look more feminine by adding a needed volume wherever it is needed. You can see this trend by such famous fashion designers as Oscar de la Renta or Jean Paul Gaultier.


Do you want anything unusual?

Then asymmetrical dresses and skirts are just right for you. Asymmetric is in vogue now. With this trick, designers create optical illusions and emphasize certain parts of a body. For example, asymmetric can help you to show your beautiful legs. This style is good for textured space dresses and classic weddings outfits.


Don’t hide your shoulders.

Off-the-shoulders silhouettes will always be popular by brides of Nigeria. These amazing dresses show beautiful shoulders and make a neck visually longer. In a couple with a thin belt on your waist, you will look like a doll in this type of a wedding dress. Choose a fluffy dress or a tight outfit to pay attention to your posture.

Our Recommended Books

Pay attention to the texture.

There were a lot of feminine little and huge 3D flowers on the best runways of the world. Some were decorated with crystals and beads.


Pure and clear.

Minimalism is also in trend. One monochrome dresses, simple silhouettes are a hit now. It is a pattern from 90’s. However, 30’s are still modern as well with their super thin shapes, spaghetti straps and draped outfits.


Naked back.

It looks very elegant and so feminine when your dress is long and discreet, but it has no back.


Make it longer!

Long fishtails are more than actual for a real wedding dress. Nigeria wedding fashion futures many amazing super long dresses and skirts of bridesmaid that make the occasion even more special.

Don’t forget about your hair. You can use imitation jewelry to decorate it. There are also common African bijoutries for decorating of your legs, arms, and a forehead. Your hairstyle, your bouquet of flowers, your shoes and of course, a bridal veil – all have to be in a harmony with your dress. And a bride has to look like the second half of her future husband. All the little details are important and have to be well balanced to look perfectly.


Love Africa.

You can use traditional Africans patterns on your wedding closes. It looks just perfect when a couple wears wedding clothing made from the same fabric. The idea of wearing similar color shows other people you are a real couple, just two halves of the one big love.


It is very romantic and will surely impress all the guests. If you have little kids, you can dress them the same. And don’t afraid to choose big bright patterns. They look beautiful.

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The Chronicles of Narnia (Series)

The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven high fantasy novels by author C. S. Lewis. It is considered a classic of children’s literature and is the author’s best-known work, having sold over 100 million copies in 47 languages. Written by Lewis, illustrated by Pauline Baynes, and originally published in London between 1950 and 1956, The Chronicles of Narnia has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for radio, television, the stage, and film.

Set in the fictional realm of Narnia, a fantasy world of magic, mythical beasts, and talking animals, the series narrates the adventures of various children who play central roles in the unfolding history of that world. Except in The Horse and His Boy , the protagonists are all children from the real world, magically transported to Narnia, where they are called upon by the lion Aslan to protect Narnia from evil and restore the throne to its rightful line. The books span the entire history of Narnia, from its creation in The Magician’s Nephew to its eventual destruction in The Last Battle .

Inspiration for the series was taken from multiple sources; in addition to adapting numerous traditional Christian themes, Lewis freely borrowed characters and ideas from Greek and Roman mythology as well as from traditional British and Irish fairy tales. The books have profoundly influenced adult and children’s fantasy literature since World War II. Lewis’s exploration of themes not usually present in children’s literature, such as religion, as well as the books’ perceived treatment of issues including race and gender, has caused some controversy.


Although Lewis originally conceived what would become The Chronicles of Narnia in 1939, he did not finish writing the first book The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe until 1949. The Magician’s Nephew , the penultimate book to be published, but the last to be written, was completed in 1954. Lewis did not write the books in the order in which they were originally published, nor were they published in their current chronological order of presentation. The original illustrator, Pauline Baynes, created pen and ink drawings for the Narnia books that are still used in the editions published today. Lewis was awarded the 1956 Carnegie Medal for The Last Battle , the final book in the saga. Fellow children’s author Roger Lancelyn Green first referred to the series as The Chronicles of Narnia , in March 1951, after he had read and discussed with Lewis his recently completed fourth book The Silver Chair , originally entitled Night under Narnia .

Lewis described the origin of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe in an essay entitled “It All Began with a Picture”:

The Lion all began with a picture of a Faun carrying an umbrella and parcels in a snowy wood. This picture had been in my mind since I was about sixteen. Then one day, when I was about forty, I said to myself: ‘Let’s try to make a story about it.’

Shortly before the start of World War II, many children were evacuated to the English countryside in anticipation of attacks on London and other major urban areas by Nazi Germany. As a result, on 2 September 1939, three school girls, Margaret, Mary and Katherine, came to live at The Kilns in Risinghurst, Lewis’s home three miles east of Oxford city centre. Lewis later suggested that the experience gave him a new appreciation of children and in late September he began a children’s story on an odd sheet of paper which has survived as part of another manuscript:

This book is about four children whose names were Ann, Martin, Rose and Peter. But it is most about Peter who was the youngest. They all had to go away from London suddenly because of Air Raids, and because Father, who was in the Army, had gone off to the War and Mother was doing some kind of war work. They were sent to stay with a kind of relation of Mother’s who was a very old professor who lived all by himself in the country.

In “It All Began With a Picture” C. S. Lewis continues:

At first I had very little idea how the story would go. But then suddenly Aslan came bounding into it. I think I had been having a good many dreams of lions about that time. Apart from that, I don’t know where the Lion came from or why he came. But once he was there, he pulled the whole story together, and soon he pulled the six other Narnian stories in after him.

The manuscript for The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe was complete by the end of March 1949.

The seven books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia are presented here in order of original publication date:

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)


Main article: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe , completed by the end of March 1949 and published by Geoffrey Bles in the United Kingdom on 16 October 1950, tells the story of four ordinary children: Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy Pevensie, who have been evacuated to the English countryside from London in 1940 following the outbreak of World War II. They discover a wardrobe in Professor Digory Kirke’s house that leads to the magical land of Narnia. The Pevensie children help Aslan, a talking lion, save Narnia from the evil White Witch, who has reigned over the land of Narnia for a century of perpetual winter with no Christmas. The children become kings and queens of this new-found land and establish the Golden Age of Narnia, leaving a legacy to be rediscovered in later books.

Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia (1951)


Main article: Prince Caspian

Completed after Christmas 1949 and published on 15 October 1951, Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia tells the story of the Pevensie children’s second trip to Narnia. They are drawn back by the power of Susan’s horn, blown by Prince Caspian to summon help in his hour of need. Narnia, as they knew it, is no more, as more than 1,000 years have passed and their castle is in ruins, while all Narnians have retreated so far within themselves that only Aslan’s magic can wake them. Caspian has fled into the woods to escape his uncle, Miraz, who has usurped the throne. The children set out once again to save Narnia.

The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952)


Main article: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader

Written between January and February 1950 and published on 15 September 1952, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader sees Edmund and Lucy Pevensie, along with their priggish cousin, Eustace Scrubb, return to Narnia. Once there, they join Caspian’s voyage on the ship Dawn Treader to find the seven lords who were banished when Miraz took over the throne. This perilous journey brings them face to face with many wonders and dangers as they sail toward Aslan’s country at the edge of the world.

The Silver Chair (1953)


Main article: The Silver Chair

Completed at the beginning of March 1951 and published 7 September 1953, The Silver Chair is the first Narnia book without any of the Pevensie children. Instead, Aslan calls Eustace back to Narnia together with his classmate Jill Pole. There they are given four signs to aid them in the search for Prince Rilian, Caspian’s son, who disappeared after setting out ten years earlier to avenge his mother’s death. Fifty years have passed in Narnia and Caspian, who was barely an adult in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader , is now an old man, while Eustace is still a child.

Eustace and Jill, with the help of Puddleglum the Marsh-wiggle, face danger and betrayal on their quest to find Rilian.

The Horse and His Boy (1954)


Main article: The Horse and His Boy

Begun in March and completed at the end of July 1950, The Horse and His Boy was published on 6 September 1954. The story takes place during the reign of the Pevensies in Narnia, an era which begins and ends in the last chapter of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe . A talking horse called Bree and a young boy named Shasta, both of whom are in bondage in the country of Calormen, are the protagonists. By “chance”, they meet and plan their return to Narnia and freedom. Along the way they meet Aravis and her talking horse Hwin who are also fleeing to Narnia.

The Magician’s Nephew (1955)


Main article: The Magician’s Nephew

Completed in February 1954 and published by Bodley Head in London on 2 May 1955, the prequel The Magician’s Nephew brings the reader back to the origins of Narnia where we learn how Aslan created the world and how evil first entered it. Digory Kirke and his friend Polly Plummer stumble into different worlds by experimenting with magic rings made by Digory’s uncle. They encounter Jadis (The White Witch) in the dying world of Charn, and witness the creation of Narnia. Many long-standing questions about the world are answered as a result. The story is set in 1900, when Digory was a 12-year-old boy. He is a middle-aged professor and host to the Pevensie children by the time of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe 40 years later.

The Last Battle (1956)


Main article: The Last Battle

Completed in March 1953 and published 4 September 1956, The Last Battle chronicles the end of the world of Narnia. Jill and Eustace return to save Narnia from Shift, an ape, who tricks Puzzle, a donkey, into impersonating the lion Aslan, precipitating a showdown between the Calormenes and King Tirian. This leads to the end of Narnia, revealing the true Narnia to which Aslan brings them.

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Twilight (Series)

Twilight is a series of four vampire-themed fantasy romance novels by American author Stephenie Meyer. Released annually from 2005 through 2008, the four books chart the later teen years of Isabella “Bella” Swan, a girl who moves to Forks, Washington, and falls in love with a 104-year-old vampire named Edward Cullen. The series is told primarily from Bella’s point of view, with the epilogue of Eclipse and Part II of Breaking Dawn being told from the viewpoint of character Jacob Black, a werewolf. The unpublished Midnight Sun is a retelling of the first book, Twilight , from Edward Cullen’s point of view. The novella The Short Second Life of Bree Tanner , which tells the story of a newborn vampire who appeared in Eclipse , was published on June 5, 2010, as a hardcover book and on June 7 as a free online ebook. The Twilight Saga: The Official Illustrated Guide , a definitive encyclopedic reference with nearly 100 full color illustrations, was released in bookstores on April 12, 2011.

Since the release of the first novel, Twilight , in 2005, the books have gained immense popularity and commercial success around the world. The series is most popular among young adults; the four books have won multiple awards, most notably the 2008 British Book Award for “Children’s Book of the Year” for Breaking Dawn , while the series as a whole won the 2009 Kids’ Choice Award for Favorite Book.

As of November 2011, the series has sold over 120 million copies worldwide with translations into at least 38 different languages around the globe. The four Twilight books have consecutively set records as the biggest selling novels of 2008 on the USA Today Best-Selling Books list and have spent over 235 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list for Children’s Series Books.



Main article: Twilight (Meyer novel)

Bella Swan moves from Phoenix, Arizona to live with her father in Forks, Washington to allow her mother to travel with her new husband, a minor league baseball player. After moving to Forks, Bella finds herself involuntarily drawn to a mysterious, handsome boy, Edward Cullen. She eventually learns that he is a member of a vampire family who drinks animal blood rather than human blood. Edward and Bella fall in love, while James, a sadistic vampire from another coven, is drawn to hunt down Bella. Edward and the other Cullens defend Bella. She escapes to Phoenix, Arizona, where she is tricked into confronting James, who tries to kill her. She is seriously wounded, but Edward rescues her and they return to Forks.

New Moon


Main article: New Moon (novel)

Edward and his family leave Forks because he believes he is endangering Bella’s life. Bella goes into a depression until she develops a strong friendship with Jacob Black, who she discovers can shape-shift into a wolf. Jacob and the other wolves in his tribe must protect her from Victoria, a vampire seeking to avenge the death of her mate James. Due to a misunderstanding, Edward believes Bella is dead. Edward decides to commit suicide in Volterra, Italy, but is stopped by Bella, who is accompanied by Edward’s sister, Alice. They meet with the Volturi, a powerful vampire coven, and are released only on the condition that Bella be turned into a vampire in the near future. Bella and Edward are reunited, and she and the Cullens return to Forks.



Main article: Eclipse (Meyer novel)

Victoria has created an army of “newborn” vampires to battle the Cullen family and murder Bella for revenge. Meanwhile, Bella is compelled to choose between her relationship with Edward and her friendship with Jacob. Edward’s vampire family and Jacob’s werewolf pack join forces to successfully destroy Victoria and her vampire army. In the end, Bella chooses Edward’s love over Jacob’s friendship and agrees to marry Edward.

Breaking Dawn


Main article: Breaking Dawn

Bella and Edward are married, but their honeymoon is cut short when Bella discovers that she is pregnant. Her pregnancy progresses rapidly, severely weakening her. She nearly dies giving birth to her and Edward’s half-vampire-half-human daughter, Renesmee. Edward injects Bella with his venom to save her life and turns her into a vampire. A vampire from another coven sees Renesmee and mistakes her for an “immortal child”. She informs the Volturi, as the existence of such beings violates vampire law. The Cullens gather vampire witnesses who can verify that Renesmee is not an immortal child. After an intense confrontation, the Cullens and their witnesses convince the Volturi that the child poses no danger to vampires or their secret, and they are left in peace by the Volturi.